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vitamins

Discussion in 'Indian Diet & Nutrition' started by vidyasundar, Oct 4, 2007.

  1. vidyasundar

    vidyasundar Bronze IL'ite

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    Water-soluble vitamins
    <!--parent is section-->
    Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses; these vitamins are not as likely to reach toxic levels as fat-soluble vitamins. However niacin, vitamin B<SUB>6</SUB>, folate, choline, and vitamin C have upper consumption limits. Vitamin B<SUB>6</SUB> has been shown to cause irreversible nerve damage at high levels over a long period of time.
    <!--parent is section-->A balanced diet usually provides a good amount of these vitamins. People older than 50 and some vegetarians may need to use supplements to get enough B<SUB>12</SUB>.

    <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=5 width="95%" align=center border=1><TD vAlign=top>Nutrient
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Function
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Sources
    <!--parent is td-->Thiamine (vitamin B<SUB>1</SUB>)
    <!--parent is td-->Part of an enzyme needed for energy metabolism; important to nerve function
    <!--parent is td-->Found in all nutritious foods in moderate amounts; pork, ham, whole-grain or enriched breads and cereals, legumes, nuts and seeds
    <!--parent is td-->Riboflavin (vitamin B<SUB>2</SUB>)
    <!--parent is td-->Part of an enzyme needed for energy metabolism; important for normal vision and skin health
    <!--parent is td-->Milk and milk products; leafy, green vegetables; whole-grain, enriched breads and cereals
    <!--parent is td-->Niacin (vitamin B<SUB>3</SUB>)
    <!--parent is td-->Part of an enzyme needed for energy metabolism; important for nervous system, digestive system, and skin health
    <!--parent is td-->Meat, poultry, fish, whole-grain or enriched breads and cereals, vegetables (especially mushrooms, asparagus, and leafy, green vegetables), peanut butter
    <!--parent is td-->Pantothenic acid
    <!--parent is td-->Part of an enzyme needed for energy metabolism
    <!--parent is td-->Widespread in foods
    <!--parent is td-->Biotin
    <!--parent is td-->Part of an enzyme needed for energy metabolism
    <!--parent is td-->Widespread in foods; also produced in intestinal tract by bacteria
    <!--parent is td-->Pyridoxine (vitamin B<SUB>6</SUB>)
    <!--parent is td-->Part of an enzyme needed for protein metabolism; helps make red blood cells
    <!--parent is td-->Meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruits
    <!--parent is td-->Folic acid
    <!--parent is td-->Part of an enzyme needed for making DNA and new cells, especially red blood cells
    <!--parent is td-->Leafy, green vegetables and legumes, seeds, and liver; now added to most refined grains
    <!--parent is td-->Cobalamin (vitamin B<SUB>12</SUB>)
    <!--parent is td-->Part of an enzyme needed for making new cells; important to nerve function
    <!--parent is td-->Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and milk products; not found in plant foods
    <!--parent is td-->Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
    <!--parent is td-->An antioxidant needed for protein metabolism; important for immune system health; aids in iron absorption
    <!--parent is td-->Found only in fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, vegetables in the cabbage family, cantaloupe, strawberries, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, lettuce, papayas, mangoes
     
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  2. vidyasundar

    vidyasundar Bronze IL'ite

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    Fat-soluble vitamins
    <!--parent is section-->
    Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's cells and are not excreted as easily as water-soluble vitamins. They do not need to be consumed as frequently as water-soluble vitamins—although adequate amounts are needed—and they are more likely to reach toxic levels if consumed in excess (for example, in supplements). Your body is especially sensitive to too much vitamin A and vitamin D. A balanced diet usually provides a good amount of fat-soluble vitamins.


    <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=5 width="95%" align=center border=1><TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Nutrient
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Function
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Sources
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Vitamin A (and its precursor, beta-carotene)
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Needed for vision, healthy skin and mucous membranes, bone and tooth growth, immune system health
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Preformed vitamin A: fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver
    <!--parent is td-->Beta-carotene: Leafy, dark green vegetables; dark orange fruits (apricots, cantaloupe) and vegetables (carrots, winter squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkin)
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Vitamin D
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Needed for proper absorption of calcium; stored in bones
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Egg yolks, liver, fatty fish, fortified milk, fortified margarine. The skin can also make vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight.
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Vitamin E
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Antioxidant; protects cell walls
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Polyunsaturated plant oils (soybean, corn, cottonseed, safflower); leafy, green vegetables; wheat germ; whole-grain products; liver; egg yolks; nuts and seeds
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Vitamin K
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Needed for proper blood clotting
    <TD vAlign=top><!--parent is td-->Leafy, green vegetables and vegetables in the cabbage family; milk; also produced in intestinal tract by bacteria
     

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