This is the second discipline, next to Karma Yoga. This word literally translates to disciplining and integrating the personality. Every human being is a source of power. If a dam is built across a river, first, water does not wastefully flow into the ocean and second, the water conserved by the dam can be constructively used for many purposes. The same holds good for the human body. The powers to desire, act and know should be conserved and utilized. Disciplines at four levels are: Physical discipline : This is discipline of the body. Activity and rest must be balanced. Eating and fasting should be balanced. Sleeping and walking should be balanced. Yoga, physical exercise and dietary discipline keep the body fit. Verbal discipline: In speech, there must be quality and quantity control. Avoid gossip and worthless talk. This is quantity control. Speech should be non-hurtful, polite, useful and truthful. This is quality control. Sensory discipline: The sense organs are like open doors through which the world enters our mind in the form of sound, touch, colour, taste and smell. This discipline is achieved through a life of alertness and discrimination. Mental discipline: The four aspects to be taken care of, are: Relaxation – mind should enjoy relaxation. Concentration – mind should have capacity to focus. Accomodation – mind should expand enough to accommodate everyone in the creation. Refinement – cultivation of ethical values. To develop the above, the scriptures prescribe meditation, otherwise called Upasanam. There are four varieties, one to develop a particular type of faculty. Relaxation-meditation: In this method, we do not concentrate on anything. The visualization of nature, like sky, mountains, ocean is one method. Concentration-meditation: Here some activity is given to the mind. It can be chanting or mentally doing puja, as realistically as possible. Doing manasika puja is a good example. Expansion-meditation: In this I can change my perspective by looking at anything vast like sky or ocean. If we do this, our problems look unimportant. If I look at nature, I understand millions appearing and disappearing. We wishfully think we will continue to exist. We realise life is nothing but the flow of one generation to the other. We learn to accept things and beings. Meditation of the totality is called Viswarupa-upasanam. This is universal vision and is described In Gita 12<SUP>th</SUP> chapter. Value-meditation: Here, I take up every positive virtue like truth, compassion, forgiveness, patience etc and see its importance in my life for my spiritual growth. By repeating, we unknowingly imbibe these virtues. These different types of meditation bring in a wonderfully disciplined mind which is ready for the next stage of Sadhana (quest for moksha or inner liberaton). Thus, discipline is the second stage of Sadhana which we call Upasana-Yoga. Love, Chithra.