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The Magic of Human Capital (WWW)

Discussion in 'Snippets of Life (Non-Fiction)' started by ojaantrik, Apr 17, 2010.

  1. ojaantrik

    ojaantrik IL Hall of Fame

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    [From The Telegraph, April 13, 2010]

    In his critical evaluation of the recently announced measures to ensure the implementation of the universal Right to Education Act, Sukanta Chaudhuri (The Telegraph, Thursday, April 1, 2010) has drawn our attention to a unique feature of Knowledge or Education, a feature that stands in the way of viewing it as a marketable commodity. As Chaudhuri puts it himself, ``We are treating knowledge as a commodity and not infrastructure, as buying a car rather than building a road." One can build endlessly many shops to sell cars in other words, but shops selling extended roadway networks are nonexistent.

    It is common practice for economists to trace the source of economic growth to capital accumulation. However, since the mid-eighties, research in growth economics has been driven by a major concern. What is the nature of the growth inducing capital itself? There have been a number of answers to the question and, without exception, they have all been concerned with drawing a clear distinction between private and public capital, or the car and the road, to use Chaudhuri's example.

    The need to develop public capital, or infrastructure, in tandem with private capital, is best understood with reference to an elementary example. Suppose a popular bakery, in response to an increasing demand for its products, expands the scale of its operations. It can buy larger ovens, employ more workers and so on. There are, however, certain means of production that are largely beyond the power of the bakery to increase simultaneously with its use of labour and equipment. An important example could be electricity. If there is a shortage of power supply to the area where the baker operates, a mere rise in labour and ovens will not help the bakery to grow. (Clearly, the baker can install a generator to meet his demand for power, but it is an inefficient technology for producing electricity.)

    Similarly, if the mill that supplies flour to the bakery is located some distance away and the two are connected by roads that are too narrow for a medium sized truck to negotiate, then the mill may not be able to supply to the bakery its increased demand for flour at one go. The delay will force the baker to turn away his customers.

    Electricity, roadways, ports, etc. are, strictly speaking, stocks of capital too. However, the distinction between the services they produce and the ones produced by the baker's oven lies in the fact that, under normal circumstances, a given power plant or a road caters to the needs of several private organizations at the same time. As opposed to this, the baker's oven serves the baker's interest alone.

    Extrapolating from here, most micro units constituting the macro system must grow for the GDP to register a positive growth rate. But, for the GDP growth rate to be sustained, the micro units will be collectively dependent on macro infrastructure. A single piece of infrastructure must be endowed with a capacity that is large enough to handle the growing needs of (possibly a growing number of) firms. As a result, a sine qua non for the emergence of a meaningful growth path is a large sized infrastructure. Sustained growth requires expanding airports, railway connectivity, irrigation facilities, communication networks and a host of other utilities.

    It is in this connection that modern growth theory identifies human capital or an educated labour force to be a rather potent form of infrastructure. Before analyzing the reasons underlying the potency, let us study a table of figures.

    <TABLE style="BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; MARGIN: auto auto auto 5.4pt; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse; BORDER-TOP: medium none; BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 191; mso-padding-alt: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext" class=MsoTableGrid border=1 cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0><TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"><TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>Country


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 2.05in; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197>Literacy rate (per cent)


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>GDP at purchasing power parity income per capita ( 1999 US $)


    <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"><TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190><?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:eek:ffice:smarttags" /><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Canada</st1:place></st1:country-region>


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 2.05in; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197>99


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>38,290


    <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"><TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 2.05in; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197>99


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>32,817


    <TR style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"><TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">South Korea</st1:place></st1:country-region>


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 2.05in; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197>99


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>27,791


    <TR style="HEIGHT: 4.8pt; mso-yfti-irow: 4"><TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.8pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Turkey</st1:place></st1:country-region>


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 2.05in; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.8pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197>88.7


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.8pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>12,339


    <TR style="HEIGHT: 4.65pt; mso-yfti-irow: 5"><TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Sri Lanka</st1:place></st1:country-region>


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 2.05in; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197>90.8


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>4,763


    <TR style="HEIGHT: 4.65pt; mso-yfti-irow: 6"><TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">India</st1:place></st1:country-region>


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 2.05in; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197>66


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>2932


    <TR style="HEIGHT: 4.65pt; mso-yfti-irow: 7; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"><TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Pakistan</st1:place></st1:country-region>


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 2.05in; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=197>49.9


    <TD style="BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; WIDTH: 142.2pt; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; HEIGHT: 4.65pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-TOP: 0in; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" vAlign=top width=190>2,671



    Source: World Bank & IMF


    The telltale figures leave little doubt that education, or more generally, Knowledge, has a significant impact on the economic performance of a country. (It would be incorrect to conclude that the figures for <st1:country-region w:st="on">Turkey</st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Sri Lanka</st1:place></st1:country-region> tell a different story. The fact that <st1:country-region w:st="on">Sri Lanka</st1:country-region> lags behind <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Turkey</st1:place></st1:country-region>, notwithstanding its higher literacy rate, is easily explained by the negative impact of terrorist activities.)

    What is the common link between electricity, roadway infrastructure etc. and Knowledge? This question is best answered by referring to the works of new growth theorists like Paul Romer (1986, 1990) and the Nobel Laureate Robert E. Lucas (1988). It was Romer in particular who suggested a conceptual separation between a produced commodity and the abstract design underlying the produce. It is the design that constitutes Knowledge and a single design is freely replicated to produce as many pieces of the concrete good as one pleases, be they toothbrushes, power plants or automobile engines. A single road caters to thousands of cars. A single design for an aircraft engenders the arrival of whole fleets of airplanes. However, unlike the road, the design is not subject to congestion problems. There are a maximum number of cars a road can handle, but the number of airplanes that are producible on the basis of a single design is literally endless.

    Thus, Knowledge is infrastructure because, like a single power plant, it serves many customers. Moreover its enormous potential is demonstrated by noting that there is no conceptual upper limit on the number of students that can consume a single body of Knowledge. Given one piece of Knowledge, unlike a slice of cake, the amount available per student is a constant independent of the number of students. Knowledge, concretized as human capital, multiplies with the number of users, whereas a roadway, even if freely usable, subdivides with a growth in cars.

    There is a second important reason why Knowledge resembles infrastructure. A national highway causes externalities by helping hotels and other commercial enterprises come up along its border. Knowledge too gives rise to an externality in the form of an improved social fabric surrounding an economy. However, its externality is not restricted to this fact alone. To own a Nano, one needs to purchase the car. Once the car is possessed, however, a researcher has free access to the abstract design underlying its engine to produce a new competing design. In other words, old Knowledge is a free input for the production of new knowledge. This is a form of externality that is peculiar to Knowledge alone.

    Both TV shows as well as Knowledge are classic examples of what economic theory describes as public goods. A pure public good is a commodity that is non-rival as well as non-excludable. A non-rival good is one which any number of persons can enjoy simultaneously without reducing its availability as in the case of a private good like petroleum. By contrast, a non-excludable commodity is illustrated by the difference between Doordarshan and a pay TV channel. Private broadcasts exclude those who do not pay for the service. Doordarshan on the other hand is non-excludable.

    Quite obviously, leaving the propagation of knowledge to private hands or foreign universities amounts to stultifying its growth potential, for commercial ventures will necessarily exclude learners, thus divesting Knowledge of its most important technological property, unlimited reproducibility. To realize the full potential of Knowledge, it has to resemble a Doordarshan broadcast, which can be viewed without paying anything more than the price of a TV set. To use Chaudhuri's analogy, market driven Knowledge may serve the needs of "magpies" in search of "shiny bric-a-brac". It does not help <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">India</st1:place></st1:country-region> harness "the greater part of its potential workforce" in the interest of overall economic development. Keeping a potentially trainable worker unskilled amounts to sinking further in the vicious circle of poverty.

    Unless the government sits up and thinks more clearly about an education strategy, the much hyped Education Act may turn into a stillborn babe.
     
    Last edited: Apr 17, 2010
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  2. knot2share

    knot2share Gold IL'ite

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    :) OJ da, you crack me up!
    W is supposed to get you more fbs isn't it?
    You are surely carrying out another trial run
    here by posting a W and a WWW.

    I havenot read your post yet, but will do so shortly.
    Good to see you in a more non-grumpy avatar.
     
  3. Kamalji

    Kamalji IL Hall of Fame

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    Dear OJ,

    I understood this brilliant peice when u gave the example of the baker, and the flour mill, Doordarshan which is freely available as against the private channels.

    and also what u said, that knowledge is not diminished by the number of students imbibing it is beautiful.

    Same way i think many people watching TV will not diminish the power of the TV, or many people using the same light in the room will not diminish the power of the light.

    Wonderfyl.

    and yes i agree, why leave education to the foreign powers, let the same opportunities be available to tghe indian companies, i agree.Dont we have the best IIT and IIM';s , and they are totally indian, and we have prodiced some of teh best brains from india.

    You can make a dullard like me understand economics of which i am zero.

    You are brilliant OJ, and i mean it.

    Regards

    kamal
     
  4. Tubelight

    Tubelight Bronze IL'ite

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    Dear oj-da

    This was no www
    but a "W to the power of n" to me because i had to read it twice. When it comes to Economics, Statistics or Political Will, my knowledge is downright feeble. Grappling with charts, neo Theories and Critical evaluation of government policies etc. right after a session of girlie chit chat is a somewhat unnerving exercise. But I did not give up and, happy to report, found myself considerably educated by your detailed article.

    [Thus, Knowledge is infrastructure because, like a single power plant, it serves many customers. Moreover its enormous potential is demonstrated by noting that there is no conceptual upper limit on the number of students that can consume a single body of Knowledge. Given one piece of Knowledge, unlike a slice of cake, the amount available per student is a constant independent of the number of students. Knowledge, concretized ashuman capital, multiplies with the number of users, whereas a roadway, even if freely usable, subdivides with a growth in cars.]
    I found this very illuminating ; gives a lot of food to chew upon.

    I am also against allowing foreign universities to strike roots here. Redesigning and strengthening out own system can yield tremendous results, provided the Leaders are sincere in their professed intent and the executive machinery is efficient and motivated enough.
    Keeping a potentially trainable worker unskilled amounts to sinking further in the vicious circle of poverty.

    Sometimes I get the uneasy feeling that the powers -that -be actually WANT to retain status quo in that vicious circle of poverty because without that critical mass of poor, unemployed(unemployable) lumpen, they cannot play their votebank games.
    Sigh !
     
  5. ojaantrik

    ojaantrik IL Hall of Fame

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    Dear k2s:

    Non-grumpy avatar? Not sure what you mean. You are right though, if I understand you correctly. I am not in a grumpy state at the moment. There is a good reason for it. I will share it others some other time.

    It's OK that you haven't read the post. It's a bit too heavy and somewhat presumptous. It brings me pretty close to the grumpy state I think.

    One of these days, I want to write totally different from the stuff I usually write. Feeling enthusiastic.

    Love.

    oj-da
     
    Last edited: Apr 21, 2010
  6. ojaantrik

    ojaantrik IL Hall of Fame

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    Dear Kamal:

    I absolutely refuse to hear you call yourself a dullard! I know for certain that IL doesn't consider you a dullard. They love and admire you for your wonderful sense of humour.

    This education thing does bother me. Whatever we have done for education since the British left us was wrong. Topsy turvy is the right expression.

    I have little hope.

    oj
     
  7. ojaantrik

    ojaantrik IL Hall of Fame

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    @ TL

    Dear Lakshmi:

    Kamal and you have seen very clearly what I had been trying to draw people's attention to. To quote you:



    This summarizes very clearly exactly what I was saying. You will see that Kamal has said precisely the same thing in his own language.

    All I can say in response to this well-argued response is that I share with you the three letter word you end up with:

    And sorry to have imposed this heavy burden on you good friend.

    Love.

    oj-da
     

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