In 2.15, Krishna explains, who can attain immortality. Yam hi na vyathayanyaethae, purusham purusharshabha Samadu:khasukham dheeram, sO(a)mruthatvaaya kalpathae 2.15 Oh Arjuna ! That person whom these (sense organs and objects) do not disturb, who is equanimous in pain and pleasure and who is wise alone becomes fit for immortality. Dheera, here, means one who is discriminating, one who has knowledge of the nithya-atma. The word panditha used earlier is replaced by this word. Wisdom lies in stoic endurance of fleeting experiences. Equipoise in the midst of conflicting experiences is the hallmark of maturity and is the gateway to moksha, immortality. The next verse is very peculiar and important. NaasathO vidhyathae bhaavO naabhaavO vidhyathae satha: UbhayOrapi drushtO(a)nthasthvanayOsthathva dars(h)ibhi: 2.16 There is no existence for the unreal. There is no non-existence for the Real. The truth of both these is indeed known by the seers of Reality. This is one of the deepest verses of Gita. Asat means something that does not exist independently and Sat is what exists independent of anything else. Satyam is a thing with intrinsic existence and Mithya is a thing with borrowed existence. Intrinsic nature is permanent and incidental nature is temporary, borrowed and subject to loss. In Vedanta parlance, pot example is typically given. The word “pot” reveals an object that depends on its existence, on clay. It has no existence apart from clay. That which depends upon something for its existence, that which does not independently exist is called asat. Anything that is time-bound like a pot will change (break) and you cannot stop it because its nature is to keep on changing. Knowing that it is not eternal, why cry for it ? Sat is that which never changes and hence cannot create a sorrow for you. Sat is never negated at any time and hence cannot create a sorrow for you. In the vision of the Veda, you are the sat and everything else is asat. Asat cannot be a source of sorrow to sat and sat cannot be a source of sorrow to you, because it is You. Thus the jnani is very well aware that the Self always exists and the world is like a mirage . He rejects the names and forms and takes the underlying Essence in all the names and forms, that is sath-chit-ananda. So, what is changing must be unreal. What is permanent must be real. Love, Chithra.