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**History of Oman**

Discussion in 'Africa & Middle East - Other Areas' started by maanasa, Sep 28, 2007.

  1. maanasa

    maanasa Silver IL'ite

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    Qaboos of Oman


    'Sayyed Qaboos bin Sa’id Al ‘Bu Sa’id
    Sultan of Oman


    Reign July 23, 1970 - Present
    Born November 18, 1940
    Salalah, Dhofar, Oman
    Predecessor Said bin Taimur
    Successor Incumbent
    Consort none
    Royal House Sa'id
    Father Said bin Taimur
    Mother Mazwon bint Ahamed- مزون بنت أحمد

    Sayyed Qaboos bin Sa’id Al ‘Bu Sa’id (Arabic: قابوس بن سعيد آل سعيد born November 18, 1940 in Salalah) is the current Sultan of Oman. He rose to power after overthrowing his father, Sa’id ibn Taimur, in 1970. He is the 14th descendant of the Al Bu Sa'id


    Early life

    Sultan Qaboos bin Said was born in Salalah in Dhofar on 18 November, 1940. He is the only son of Sultan Said bin Taimur (dec'd) and is of the 8th generation of the Al Busaidi dynasty. He received his primary and secondary education in Salalah, and at 16, was sent to a private educational establishment in England. At the age of 20, he entered the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst. After passing out of Sandhurst, he joined a British Infantry battalion (1st Bn The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)) on operations in Germany for one year and also held a staff appointment with the British Army.

    After his military service, Sultan Qaboos studied local government subjects in England and, after a world tour, returned home to Salalah where he studied Islam and the history of his country.

    Rise to power

    For six years prior to Sa’id ibn Taimur's overthrow, Qaboos was under virtual house arrest in the royal palace of Salalah. In July of 1970, soldiers supporting Qaboos clashed with forces loyal to Sa'id ibn Taimur, and deposed him.[1] Qaboos maintains that his father abdicated the throne.[2] The British government helped to consolidate Qaboos' power. Qaboos acceded to the throne on 23 July 1970, moving to Muscat. There he declared that the country would no longer be known as Muscat and Oman, but would change its name to "the Sultanate of Oman" in order to better reflect its political unity.

    The first pressing problem that Qaboos faced as Sultan was an armed Communist insurgency from South Yemen, the Dhofar War (1965-1975). The Sultan quickly defeated the incursion with help from the Iranian Army and the British Royal Air Force.

    Reign as Sultan

    The political system which Qaboos established is that of an absolute monarchy. Unlike the situation in neighboring Saudi Arabia, Qaboos' decisions are not subject to modification by other members of Oman's sultanic family.

    Government decisions are said to be made through a process of decision-making by "consensus" with federal, provincial, local and tribal representatives. Critics allege that Qaboos exercises de facto control of this process. Qaboos also regularly engages in tours of his realm, in which any citizen with a grievance or request is (at least in theory) allowed to appeal to the sultan in person. Critics claim these meetings to be scripted as well.

    More recently Qaboos has allowed parliamentary elections (in which women have voted and stood as candidates), and pledged greater openness and participation in government. As yet, however, this parliament lacks substantial political power.

    Qaboos's supporters point to his relative success in governing the country. By Gulf standards, Oman boasts good public order (it is basically a safe country, even for foreigners), middling prosperity (given its level of oil revenues) and a relatively permissive society. Since Qaboos acceded to the throne, Oman has broadened international relations, allowed newspapers, established high schools, built highways, opened hotels and shopping malls, and spends a substantial portion of its dwindling oil revenues on health care and education.[3] Full democracy, they say, might threaten these accomplishments.

    Unlike the heads of other Gulf states, Qaboos has not publicly named an heir. Article 6 of the constitution actually provides that the Ruling Family Council chooses the successor after the throne becomes vacant, and that the sultan's preference, to be expressed in an official letter (which Qaboos maintains has already been sealed and delivered to the defense minister), is only resorted to in the event of lack of familial consensus. Critics fear, however, that the resulting uncertainty could inspire a power struggle among members of the dynasty and/or the military. A power vacuum could thus coincide with the expected depletion of Oman's oil supplies, threatening the nation's continued peace and prosperity.

    In 1998, Qaboos was presented with the International Peace Award by the National Council on US-Arab relations. He also forges and maintains good relations with other Arab States and partners in the Arab Gulf Cooperation Council (AGCC).

    Each year, Oman celebrates the reign of Sultan Qaboos on National Day, 18th November. Festivities take place all over the country and are lavish displays in the Sultan's honour. Year 2000, 30th National Day celebrations will be based in Muscat.

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    Nakhal fort in Oman






     
  2. maanasa

    maanasa Silver IL'ite

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    Oman - History

    Oman Pictures Oman´s history goes back to the very dawn of civilization. The coastal area fronting on the Gulf of Oman is believed to have been the land known to the Sumerians as Magan, from which as early as 3,000 B.C. they were importing copper.

    Remains of settlements and distinctive beehive tombs are the legacy of this earliest known culture. The Arab history of the country begins in the 2nd century B.C., with the migration of tribal groups from the region of modern-day Yemen.

    The Oman is were among the first of the peoples of the Arabian Peninsula to embrace Islam, doing so during the lifetime of the Prophet in the 7th century A.D. The centuries that followed were a golden age, with Omani sailors and traders ranging from India to Africa.

    In 1507 the Portuguese seized and fortified Muscat harbor, establishing a string of coastal strong points to proted their trade route to India. They were not finally expelled until 1650.

    The Oman is then proceeded to build their own empire on the Arabian Peninsula and along the coasts of Persia, India and Africa, becoming the dominant maritime power in the area. In 1741 the founder of the present Al-Said dynasty, Imam Ahmad bin Said, took power, moving the capital from the interior to the former Portuguese stronghold of Muscat.

    The country thereafter was known as Muscat and Oman. Winning a contest with France for influence, Britain established a treaty relationship with the sultanate in 1798. Oman was recognized as fully independent in 1951,
    but the close relationship continued.

    British help was crucial in suppressing repeated revolts by Moslem fundamentalists in the interior. A separatist revolt then broke out in Dhofar province, incited by the People´s Republic of Yemen, Oman´s Marxist neighbor.

    During the early 1970s relations between Oman and the neighbouring People´s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY united with the Yemen Arab Republic in May 1990) deteriorated, following conflict in Dhofar Province with a guerrilla organization, known from 1974 as the People´s Front for the Liberation of Oman, which the PDRY supported. Although a cease-fire was mediated by Saudi Arabia in March 1976, the situation remained tense.

    Oman´s acceptance of US assistance in defence aroused protests from the PDRY in 1981, but mediation by other Gulf states led to a ´normalization´ agreement in 1982 and diplomatic relations between Oman and the PDRY were resiumed in 1983.

    In October 1988 Oman and the PDRY signed an agreement to increase co-operation in the areas of trade and communication, and in February 1990 the two countries reached an agreement to delineate their common border.

    The Iranian revolution of 1978-79 and the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) led to increased international awareness of Oman´s strategic importance, particularly regarding the Strait of Hormuz, a narrow waterway at the mouth of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, between Oman and Iran, through which, under normal circumstances, about two-thirds of the world´s sea-borne trade in crude petroleum passes.


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    The trunk of what is believed to be Oman’s oldest tree preserved in the premises of the Museum


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    Eye-catching fossil exhibits at the museum


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    Fort Jalali, Muscat



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    Dome of the populal Riyam park muscat








     
  3. maanasa

    maanasa Silver IL'ite

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    Salalah - Clock Tower
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    Salalah lies in Oman's southern Dhofar region. Known for its glorious history, heritage, rich culture, traditions and wonders of nature. Salalah today is also contributing towards the economic boom in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Spread along the coast, Salalah is the most densely populated city in the Dhofar region. It has a modern port, hospitals, schools, colleges and a wide range of accommodation for both short and long staying visitors.


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    Taqua fort​



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    Mugsail bay




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    salt water lagoon



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    longest known tomb



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    prophet emran​


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    mugsailbeach​













     
    Last edited: Sep 28, 2007

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