Picasso, Pablo (1881-1973) "Drink to me!" Pablo Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramist, who developed Cubism, one of the most influential modern painting styles. Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770-1827) "Friends applaud, the comedy is over." Ludwig van Beethoven, a German composer, was one of the world's greatest musical geniuses. In 1792, Beethoven moved from the provincial court city of Bonn to Vienna, where he studied with Haydn. His hearing had begun to fail by 1798, but he continued to produce a massive volume of music including numerous masterpieces. Unfortunately, the last thirty years of his life were filled with a series of personal tragedies. In addition to his deafness, he became depressed after ending a relationship with an unnamed--and probably married--lady; he struggled through a series of legal battles to gain custody of his nephew following the death of his brother; he was plagued by financial problems and huge debts, and his health began to rapidly fail after his nephew attempted suicide in 1826. Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939) "My dear Schur, you remember our first talk. You promised to help me when I could no longer carry on. It is only torture now, and it has no longer any sense." The founder of psychoanalysis was an inveterate smoker, often consuming 20 cigars each day. He underwent over thirty operations to remove tumors and fit protheses after being diagnosed with cancer of the jaw in 1923. After specialists finally reported that it was useless to operate again, Freud remarked that "It is tragic when a man outlives his body." He was bedridden and in intense pain when he pressured his personal physician for relief and received several large doses of morphine. He slipped into a coma and died the next day. Edison, Thomas A. (1847-1931) "It's very beautiful over there." In the Spring of 1929, Thomas Edison traveled from his home and laboratory at Menlo Park, New Jersey, to Dearborn, Michigan, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his invention of the electric light as well as the opening of both the Ford Museum and Greenfield Village. After being introduced by President Hoover, Edison delivered a brief banquet speech and then collapsed. The president's physician quickly rushed to Edison's aid and determined that he was suffering from severe pneumonia. Edison returned to Menlo Park but never fully recovered. He collapsed again in August, 1931, and was bedridden for the last two months of his life. He sank into semi-consciousness, and his second wife, Mina, remained by his side. On Edison's last day, she leaned close and asked, "Are you suffering?" to which he replied, "No, just waiting." Edison then looked out of his bedroom window and softly spoke his last words. Archimedes of Syracuse (298-212 B.C.) "Wait 'till I have finished my problem!" Archimedes was the leading mathematician of the Hellenistic Age. During the Second Punic War after Syracuse sided with Carthage, it was besieged by the Roman army under the command of Marcellus. For two years, between 214 and 212 B.C., the city fought off the Romans using many war engines invented by Archimedes including catapults and flame throwers. Syracuse eventually fell through internal treachery and, during the sack of the city, Archimedes was captured and killed by a Roman soldier. Archimedes last words have also been recorded as "Don't disturb my circles!" and "Stand away, fellow, from my diagram. . . . Somebody give me one of my engines." Socrates (469-399 B.C.) "Crito, I owe a cock to Asclepius. Will you remember to pay the debt?" Socrates was a Greek philosopher broke with tradition to investigate both ethics and logic. Possessed with an amazing ability to irritate politicians, he was eventually convicted of corrupting the young people of Athens through his teaching and sentenced to death by drinking hemlock. Caesar, Julius Gaius (100-44 B.C.) "You too, Brutus?" Although Marcus Junius Brutus was a trusted young friend of Caesar's, he was also one of the conspirators who murdered him on the Ides of March in 44 B.C. When Caesar entered the Senate that day, all of the senators stood to show respect. Some of the conspirators snuck behind Caesar's chair while others moved forward as if to greet him. As one grabbed Caesar's robe to signal the beginning of the attack, another struck a glancing blow to his neck. Each of the attackers then bared their knives and closed around Caesar in a tightening circle. Caesar attempted to fight the assassins until he saw his trusted friend, Brutus, approach dagger in hand. In surprised resignation Caesar uttered his famous last words, fell to the floor, and pulled his robe up over his face. Brutus then stabbed Caesar in the groin and all of the attackers joined in. In the frenzy, Caesar was pushed against a statue of his old enemy, Pompey, which soon became drenched in blood. All told, the attackers stabbed Caesar twenty-three times. Most people know that the Latin translation of "You too, Brutus?" is "Et tu, Brute?" and many will recall that in Shakespeare's play, the bard adds a final English sentence to these Latin words, "Then fall, Caesar!" However, some have suggested that the famous phrase was probably spoken--if it was spoken at all--in the Greek that was commonly used by Roman officials. The Greek version of Caesar's last words is "Kai su, teknon?" or "You too, my son?" Chaplin, Charles (1889-1977) "Why not? After all, it belongs to him." Charlie Chaplin was a British actor who became a Hollywood star after joining with Max Sennet during a music hall tour of the United States in 1913. He is usually remembered for his silent picture roles as a little man with a mustache wearing a baggy suit and derby. Many consider Chaplin to be cinema's greatest comedian. When the priest, who was attending him on his deathbed, said "May the Lord have mercy on your soul," Chaplin quickly replied, "Why not? After all, it belongs to him." Tolstoy, Leo (Nikolaevich), Count (1828-1910) "Even in the valley of the shadow of death, two and two do not make six." Leo Tolstoy was a Russian writer who had served as an officer in the Crimean War. He lived a life based upon pacifism and asceticism and rejected the teachings of the Orthodox Church. Even as he died, Tolstoy rejected friends who attempted to convince him to reconcile with the church. Tolstoy's last words are also often recounted as "But the peasants, how do they die?" Marx, Karl (1818-1883) "Go on, get out! Last words are for fools who haven't said enough!" Karl Marx was the German economist, philosopher, and revolutionary who, with the aid of Friederich Engles, produced most of the theory of modern socialism and communism. As he lay in bed shortly before his death, his housekeeper foolishly asked if he had any last words.