<center>திருவள்ளுவர் இயற்றிய திருக்குறள்</center> Thirukkural (Tamil: திருக்குறள் also known as the Kural) is a classic of couplets or Kurals (1330 rhyming Tamil couplets) or aphorisms <sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"></sup> celebrated by Tamils.<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"></sup> It was authored by Thiruvalluvar, and is considered to be the first work to focus on ethics, in Shramana literature of India. However it begins with salutation to Adi Bhagwan. Thirukkural expounds various aspects of life and is one of the most important works in Tamil. This is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is known: tamilmarai (Tamil Veda); poyyamozhi (speech that does not become false); and teyva nul or dheiva nool (divine text). <sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"></sup> It is dated anywhere from the second century BC to the eighth century AD. <sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"></sup> The book is considered to be a posterior to Arthashastra by some historians and to precede Manimekalai and Silapathikaram since both the latter acknowledge the Kural text. <sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"></sup> Thirukkural is and remains to be the book that has been translated into the most number of languages and hence it is called as "Ulaga Podhu Marai" meaning the Common Knowledge for the world. Copies of Tirukkural are available even at places as far as New York. Copies of Tirukkural published as early as 1930 can be found in New York Public Library. Thirukkural (or the Kural) is a collection of 1330 Tamil couplets organised into 133 chapters. Each chapter has a specific subject ranging from "ploughing a piece of land" to "ruling a country". According to the LIFCO Tamil-Tamil-English dictionary, the Tamil word Kural means Venpa verse with two lines. Thirukkural comes under one of the four categories of Venpas (Tamil verses) called Kural Venpa. The 1330 couplets are divided into 3 sections and 133 chapters. Each chapter contains 10 couplets. A couplet consists of seven cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second. A cir is a single or a combination of more than one Tamil word. For example, Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words Thiru and Kural, i.e. Thiru + Kural = Thirukkural. It is has been translated to various other languages.<sup class="noprint Template-Fact" title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from August 2008" style="white-space: nowrap;"></sup> There are claims and counter claims as to the authorship of the book and to the exact number of couplets written by Thiruvalluvar. The first instance of the author's name mentioned as Thiruvalluvar is found to be several centuries later in a song of praise called Garland of Thiruvalluvar in Thiruvalluva Malai.